Below is the edited transcript of the video above:

Ocean Robbins: Welcome to Food Revolution Conversations. I’m Ocean Robbins, co-founder and CEO of Food Revolution Network. Our focus on this interview is on how we will study from indigenous knowledge to assist us restore proper relation with our personal lives, with one another, and with our planet.

I’m thrilled to be joined for this interview by indigenous activist, ecologist, scientist, and therapeutic meals advocate, Lyla June. Lyla is an indigenous environmental scientist and wholesome meals techniques advocate. She’s a doctoral scholar on the University of New Mexico and an educator, neighborhood organizer, musician, and inspiration to an entire lot of individuals, together with me. 

Her work focuses on private, collective, and ecological therapeutic. Her internationally acclaimed performances and speeches convey collectively prayer, hip hop, poetry, acoustic music, and phrases. Her private objective is to develop nearer to Creator by studying how one can love deeper. Lyla, welcome.

Lyla June: Thank you a lot for having me, Ocean.

Indigenous Cultural Sophistication

view of forest clearing

Ocean Robbins: Well, I’m simply thrilled to have this time with you. There’s a little bit of a delusion that indigenous folks, pre-Columbus, had been primitive. Yet, the reality is that there have been extraordinarily subtle cultures that did one thing that definitely no one in industrialized civilization has come near doing, which was truly making the Earth increasingly ample and delightful. Can you share a bit bit about that and what your research have taught you concerning the historical past there?

Lyla June: My PhD work is on the intersection of indigenous meals techniques and indigenous land administration, and the way we’d domesticate the pure food-bearing capability of complete bioregions. Even although I’m getting my PhD in it, I’m nonetheless like a bit child in comparison with a few of my elders who’ve been not simply speaking about this, however residing it their complete life. I’ll simply illustrate what you’re speaking about with a few examples.

The Shawnee

Lyla June: One is in Kentucky. The Shawnee ancestors, they really created a meals forest. We know this as a result of the fossilized pollen document is there within the ponds. And you’ll be able to date the macrofossils and the pollen to see how previous it’s. What we see is that about three,000 years in the past, the Shawnee Osage ancestors, in what we now name Kentucky, truly sustained a meals forest of black walnut, chestnut, hickory nut, acorn, sumpweed, goosefoot, all these edible plant species in that space for three,000 years.

We additionally see fossilized charcoal, which signifies that they managed this with (low-intensity burns) clearing the understory, ensuring you solely have 13 timber per acre — which is a really skinny forest. Because across the US at the moment, we see numerous overgrown forests the place you’ve got numerous actually sick timber as an alternative of some actually sturdy and wholesome ones. 

We noticed this inflow of pollen are available three,000 years in the past and fully exchange a cedar and hemlock-dominated forest. They simply moved in, reworked the entire place right into a meals forest, and endured for three,000 years. 

The Bella Bella

Lyla June: Another instance is the Heiltsuk (also referred to as Bella Bella), neighborhood in British Columbia. They’re proper up between Vancouver and Alaska, on the shoreline in British Columbia. They hand plant kelp forests — to today. And they’ve been doing it for hundreds of years. The impact of this kelp forest cultivation is that it will increase the floor space upon which the herring, which is a small, silver fish, can lay its eggs. 

The Heiltsuk folks construct these large forests of a particular kelp that grows quicker than any vegetation had been used to. I believe it’s like a meter per week or one thing like that. And so, you’ve got ample floor space. This elevated floor space supplies a house for the fish eggs that in flip present the inspiration for a complete meals internet. The seals eat them, and so they in flip grow to be meals for the orca whales. The salmon, the wolves, the eagles, the people — everybody up the meals chain relies on the herring roe.

And, after all, the herring could be very outstanding of their (the Heiltsuk’s) creation tales, of their histories, of their cultural information and tales. Essentially, it’s an essential a part of the ecosystem there, and so they perceive that. And they domesticate it. That’s one other instance.

The Amah Mutsun

Lyla June: In Santa Cruz, California, you’ve got the Amah Mutsun folks. The chairman, Val Lopez, stated that their rule of thumb was to have about 13 timber per acre. (By having a number of massive sturdy timber, with loads of area between them, they had been capable of dramatically cut back forest hearth hazard.) The oak groves offered ample acorns, which are literally extremely scrumptious and nutritious. These oak timber have fire-resistant bark as a result of they co-evolved with human hearth for thus lengthy.

Clam Gardens

Lyla June: Then, one of many different examples I like to provide is the clam gardens. The clams wish to exist a sure depth under the ocean floor. And so, alongside the shoreline, many countries will truly improve the depth of the shoreline to create habitat for these clams. 

And so, what I’m discovering is numerous indigenous meals techniques are about habitat development, such that your meals will come to you, and also you don’t should go to it. And you not solely create meals for your self and your folks, however for all residing beings since you’re not the one one consuming these clams.

Resource Overconsumption

filling glass with tap water

Ocean Robbins: Well, thanks for sharing all of that. It’s truly very heartening, I believe, for these of us who assume that we have now to invent one thing that’s by no means been earlier than to ensure that our species to outlive — to comprehend that we have now some knowledge we will draw upon. Just as an instance… We are on useful resource consumption overshoot around the globe. We are depleting our aquifers at an unsustainable fee and billions of persons are going to expire of consuming water within the subsequent technology.

We are depleting our topsoil. In truth, UN researchers have estimated that we may run out of farmable soil within the subsequent couple of generations as a result of the quantity of soil that we have now to develop our meals is a 3rd of what it was within the US when Columbus landed. 

We’re destabilizing our local weather, creating extra droughts and floods. And with much less topsoil, they trigger extra injury. Droughts are extra intense as a result of there’s much less water saved within the soil. Floods are extra harmful, and so they wash away what soil there’s. And it doesn’t maintain the water.

All of this will trigger devastation. And all of this impacts our capability to develop meals for future generations. These sorts of ideas, how we stroll and stay and develop our meals, are elementary to our survival.

Stewards of Biodiversity

colorful vegetables in compartmentalized tray

Lyla June: Absolutely. About 60% of the meals that the world enjoys come initially from indigenous peoples of the Americas as a result of our meals sciences had been so subtle. 

As it’s possible you’ll know, native peoples — which means folks with hundreds of years of historical past in a spot — are about 5% of the worldwide inhabitants. And but, they’re overseeing, based on a latest UN report, 80% of the world’s biodiversity. This concept that we had been simpletons or primitive couldn’t be farther from the reality as a result of we had an unbelievable information of the biodiversity ideas that really cultivated and, such as you stated, regenerated the land round us.

Ocean Robbins: When you say that indigenous peoples signify 5% of the world’s inhabitants and but are stewards of 80% of the world’s biodiversity, do you imply that that the animal and plant species of the world are hyper-concentrated in areas that indigenous peoples are serving to to guard?

Lyla June: Yes, they maintain tenure over about 20% of the Earth’s land which holds about 80% of the world’s biodiversity, by species depend.

The Vitalness Of Indigenous Peoples

Ocean Robbins: That’s truly excellent news for followers of biodiversity as a result of it signifies that numerous the world’s species are at present, to some extent, being protected by indigenous peoples who’ve a reasonably good monitor document of caring for biodiversity. But, after all, in lots of elements of the world, these lands are threatened, even at the moment. It isn’t simply that encroachment on native peoples occurred a whole bunch of years in the past. It’s persevering with every single day in lots of these very hotspots that you simply’re describing with oil exploration, with deforestation, with cattle ranching, and so forth.

Lyla June: Yes. Native peoples aren’t only a cute factor to have round. They truly are very important to the persistence of humanity. And it’s time to cease treating us as if we’re disposable as a result of we’re not. 

And so, it’s not nearly defending these lands. It’s about defending the folks. And it’s not nearly defending the folks’s our bodies. It’s about defending our information as a result of that’s what is sustaining all of it. 

Living Within a Capitalist System

seedling sitting on coins in dirt

Ocean Robbins: It appears to me that one of many challenges that some indigenous peoples face is how one can work together with a capitalist financial system and but protect their values, tradition, and so forth. And for those who are actually capable of be self-sufficient, it’s one factor. But once they grow to be depending on exterior inputs, whether or not it’s know-how, or web, or meals techniques, then it’s a lot tougher to take care of sovereignty inside their very own communities. 

What is your tackle how one can navigate that? Every neighborhood is totally different and each context is totally different, however what are a number of the ideas you maintain for the way indigenous peoples can protect, maintain, and deepen their tradition or their values in communities around the globe, care for his or her ecosystems that all of us depend upon for our survival, and on the similar time, discover a method to stay in relationship to the trendy world?

Lyla June: Well, that’s the million-dollar query. But from what I’ve seen, an enormous drawback is solved by doing precisely what we’re doing, which is debunking the parable of who’s civilized and who just isn’t. I believe we have now to debunk this mythology that claims that native cultures are inferior, and US Western civilization is superior. And once we do this, we’ll make extra room for indigenous worldviews, cosmologies, and practices. 

An Interconnected World

Ocean Robbins: One of the issues that’s occurring to me on this dialog, too, is that no one exists in isolation. We all breathe the identical air, drink the identical water, and share a typical local weather. And in that sense, the survival of indigenous peoples does rely in a roundabout way on the survival of humanity as an entire. 

And so, in that sense, I believe we come again sort of full circle to say, not simply how can indigenous folks survive in face of the onslaught of violence, but in addition how can the industrialized world reconnect with our rightful place as people on this planet?

And it appears to me that most individuals I do know in North America carry a deep feeling of loneliness of their hearts, a sense of uprootedness, a sense of not fairly belonging. And we deal with that in every kind of various methods. I believe that loneliness kills extra quickly than cigarettes do. And it’s one of many epidemics of the industrialized world. Do you assume that there’s indigenous knowledge that might assist everyone, no matter the place their ancestors come from, or the place they stay at the moment, to really feel extra of a way of belonging to the world?

Honoring Our Ancestors

group holding globe above their heads

Lyla June: Yeah.  If you return far sufficient, we’re all of an indigenous folks or peoples. 

I imply, I’m half European by and huge. My European facet does have a bit little bit of native tribes blended in there. But for essentially the most half, my ancestors on that facet are Scottish, Scandinavian, and possibly different issues.

And once I was within the hogan with my mom’s folks — it’s a conventional sacred constructing — as we sat in it, we needed to introduce all of our clans. All of our 4 grandparents, we have now to say the place they’re from. So I used to be saying the European ones, and hastily, I may really feel these ancestors coming in. And I used to be overtaken by their love and their kindness and their magnificence. 

My complete life, I had been educated to assume that white was unhealthy. That white folks had been the slave house owners and those who dedicated genocide. But in that ceremony, they got here very strongly. And I knew that I used to be indigenous all the best way round, and that I needed to honor ALL of my ancestors. 

And so, I did return to Europe. I went to the British Isles, Switzerland, Italy, and France, and I prayed on the mountains. I may really feel that we Euro-Americans come from a land, too.

We Are All of the Land

Lyla June: And I actually noticed that our process as white folks is to shake the amnesia and to do not forget that we’re from lovely lands and goddess-worshiping peoples. They discovered these clay effigies throughout Europe. And certainly one of them was present in German soil. And it’s of a lady. And it’s purported to symbolize the fertility of the earth, the fertility of girls and honoring ladies. And they radiocarbon dated it; it was 40,000 years previous. So that is how lengthy our folks have been utilizing their fingers to mould the clay into an effigy to honor the sanctity of the earth and of girls. And that’s who we’re (and what we come from).

And the skinny wall of time that dominates our understanding of Europe — King Louis, Napoleon, The Inquisition, the witch burnings — that’s not who we’re. That was a really onerous time the place our folks suffered drastically, and far of the indigenous information was misplaced with our grandmothers.

But when you go earlier than that, you will note wealthy, indigenous European tradition. And so completely we do belong; we’re of a lovely folks.

Ocean Robbins: Oh, thanks. There’s one thing sort of elementary right here to how we understand ourselves as human beings. The fact is, I can generally have a look at people as a little bit of a scourge on the Earth. I imply, we torture animals in manufacturing facility farms. And in every single place we go, folks have a tendency — many people — to journey round and go away issues worse than we discovered them. But you’re telling us that’s not who we’re, that we even have the capability to stay in concord with nature and to make issues extra lovely for our being right here. That’s good to know, to say the least.

Indigenous Farming Practices

closeup variety of colorful corn

Ocean Robbins: Indigenous farming practices have performed a major position in natural farming and built-in pest administration in fashionable permaculture, as practiced at the moment. Can you give any examples of ways in which indigenous practices are literally being extensively used proper now?

Lyla June: Well, after all, you’ve got polyculture. That was our normal precept, proper? The extra, the merrier. So when you simply have a look at our corn, for instance, we have now a whole bunch and a whole bunch and a whole bunch of types of corn. Even these varieties are ever-evolving as a result of we’re constantly cross-pollinating. 

I introduced some Pueblo corn to my pal earlier this spring, and he crossed-pollinated it with his blue corn. We had two totally different strands of blue corn to create a brand new blue corn. That is what we’re all the time attempting to do is diversify genes at each alternative. 

You even have, after all, the biochar motion arising, which is humorous as a result of indigenous peoples all the time burned just about from coast to coast. You’d see widespread, low-intensity burns that really would improve the soil. You have the transformation of particles into potassium, nitrogen, and different bioavailable vitamins that the grasslands love. One tablespoon of biochar has a soccer subject’s value of floor space. Because the charcoal has all these miniature flats for microbes inside it. When you burn, you’re not simply injecting bioavailable vitamins into the soil. You are additionally creating properties for microbes and to create a residing soil. 

Water Systems & Aquaculture

Lyla June: Numerous us are desirous about water, proper? Here’s a very loopy thought: don’t pollute the floor water! That method, you don’t should drill so deep into the earth to get water. It’s simply flowing proper there to you. 

I imply, Flint, Michigan, and the entire rivers which might be stuffed with fertilizers and different poisonous supplies, they’re all serving to us study what doesn’t work.

One final fast instance I’ll give is Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City. Before the Spanish arrived, it was a floating metropolis on Lake Texcoco. And they really created these floating gardens.

Imagine a metropolis excreting poop and urine all day lengthy, and so they nonetheless didn’t toxify their water supply. They had unbelievable methods of really recycling their dung — their very own human dung! It was so precious. Your personal poop was so precious you possibly can take it to the market in Tenochtitlan and commerce it for issues. 

Ocean Robbins: Wow. That’s fairly a picture. We joke about promoting S-H-I-T, however it truly was taking place. Well, that’s fascinating. 


Ocean Robbins: And simply so as to add a few different items, you’ve used a few phrases. You talked about polyculture, and also you talked about meals forests. 

And I simply wish to make clear that polyculture means a number of vegetation. Instead of a monocrop the place you’re simply rising an enormous subject of 1 factor, you’re having companion planting and vegetation mixing it up. And planting one factor in a single season and one other factor in one other season. That creates a range within the soil. Different vegetation give various things and take various things. And they steadiness one another out. You truly create richer and richer soil once you do this in an clever method, just like the three sisters, for instance. Which are squash, beans, and corn.

Lyla June: And the fourth, which is amaranth.

Ocean Robbins: Amaranth. Yes — and so they work in beautiful concord. 

And then, there’s additionally, after all, planting nitrogen-fixing vegetation — cowl crops as we name them generally.

Lyla June: Yes.

Ocean Robbins: That additionally enriches the soil. It truly provides nitrogen to the soil, which then makes the following vegetation that come after extra ample and vibrant. And these are all methods we restore the soil slightly than simply extracting from it.

Lyla June: Correct.

Food Forests

Ocean Robbins: And a meals forest, if I perceive it appropriately, that refers to when you’ve got timber, fruit timber, or nut timber, or different kinds of food-producing timber. And then you definitely’ve additionally bought different vegetation on the base of them.

Lyla June: Yes.

Ocean Robbins: And there’s a concord there as properly, proper?

Lyla June: Yes. There’s numerous cool paleo-ecological work being performed, which principally means wanting into the previous. What did the forest appear like 10,000 years in the past, or 30,000 years in the past? Every single research that I’ve been perusing talks about how there was a hyper dominance of edible plant species, particularly round sure indigenous settlements. People would plant (and nurture) the vegetation that gave them meals. 

Humanity’s Spiritual Crisis

Ocean Robbins: I wish to sort of take us to a broader stage right here. I’ve heard you describe the issues humanity is dealing with within the industrialized world as being partly a religious disaster. What do you imply by that? How do you see that?

Lyla June: Well, we don’t perceive how the world works. We don’t perceive that I’m not simply speaking to Ocean proper now. I’m speaking to Ocean and the entire spirits that hang around with Ocean, whether or not they’re discovered, or whether or not they’re misplaced. We are usually not solely biochemical beings. Even once you’re sitting, you’re not simply sitting. There’s a lot happening inside you. Not solely are we biochemical, however we’re additionally interacting with a religious world. And sadly, the enlightenment period has kind of dumbed our senses to have the ability to perceive that we’re part of a residing, respiratory, religious world as properly.

So, once we’re restoring meals techniques, we’re additionally restoring communities. And we’re restoring spirits; we’re restoring cultures. 

Cultivating an Inner Environment

hands planting seedlings in dirt

Lyla June: So, I’ll simply finish by saying this. What I used to be taught by my elders is that to carry the ancestors in you and to be the fingers and the ft of Creator, we want two primary situations: nothing for the self, and no concern. And so, that nothing for the self piece, it means you’re not doing it for fame and popularity. And you’re not doing it only for cash. 

So, it’s not solely about cultivating meals forests and gardens, and natural farming. It’s about cultivating an internal surroundings that may maintain area for the ancestors, for the angels, or no matter your tradition calls it, so you’ll be able to truly grow to be the fingers and ft of one thing larger than your self.

Those two situations, nothing for the self and no concern, have actually — as soon as I realized that, numerous issues in my life needed to change. And I’m nonetheless fine-tuning it. But think about if we taught younger people who at school. It would change every little thing. But as an alternative, we have now a homecoming queen and a homecoming king. And you wish to be the most well-liked. You need your popularity on the market. And you’re going to highschool to get a job to get cash.

So, we nearly practice the drugs particular person out of each youngster. And I believe that what we’re attempting to domesticate along with these meals techniques, is an internal surroundings that may maintain that love and that compassion that makes human cultures wholesome.

Ocean Robbins: Thank you. I might additionally add that gardening, simply touching soil, interacting with vegetation, could be very therapeutic and restorative. In my expertise, there’s one thing satisfying about it that goes past the truth that I get meals, or that I’ve meals safety. Those are fantastic issues, however there’s additionally one thing about being related to a way of place.

There’s nothing fairly like truly getting your fingers within the grime and really feeling the supply of life rising in your personal yard or in your personal kitchen, when you simply have little sprouts on the counter, to really feel like, “Wow, I’m part of life happening.” It’s very humbling in a method, as a result of we really feel our sense of dependency on the pure world, which actually does give all of us life.

A Song About Water

hands held out catching water

Ocean Robbins: Lyla, I do know that amongst different issues you might be an artist, with phrases and tune. And I’m wondering when you would share one thing with us at the moment as we full our time collectively?

Lyla June: Sure. I used to be going to learn a poem. But now, as we had been speaking, I used to be remembering I wrote a tune about water. This goes to be launched quickly with the music video and all of that. It’s truly principally the phrases of a Mescalero Apache elder by the title of Oliver Enjady. So as I sing this tune, maintain them in your ideas. I simply informed him, “What about water? What do our old people tell us about water?” And that is what he stated. And I stated, “How do I put that into a song?” He gave me an extended record of notes that I attempted to show right into a tune, so right here we go.

[SINGING] He stated, it’s not a tune; it’s a lifestyle. It’s a ceaselessly factor; it’s a message. He stated, you’ll be able to say that our water is life. You can sing it time and again, however will they pay attention?

Are we going to face by these phrases? Are we going to discover a method to change the best way we’re residing, Mother Earth? She feels every little thing, and it hurts. Like the moon, just like the physique of a lady, she is altering.

Can we return to the instances when water was alive, once we prayed at her edge, and gave thanks for this life? When the water fell from the sky, and we drank from her bosom. When the water fell from our eyes, and the water fell from our wombs? When it rose as much as the floor, now we knew each spring. No concern of competitors, only a relative to all issues.

We are folks of the solar. We are folks of the water. We will have a good time our sons, we are going to have a good time our daughters: give them ceremonies, so when the drought comes, they’ll be prepared.

Will the following battle be for water? All our options are a part of the issue, can’t win battle with battle. There is multiple creation story. Worlds have died, and worlds have been reborn earlier than.

When you contact the water, you contact the world. From tallest peaks to Gulf Streams, the reminiscences they maintain. We promote her by the acre-foot, and deal with her as our captive. The rivers are undrinkable whereas the aquifer’s extracted.

Our meals will want water to develop, however do it’s important to take all of it? We attempt to maintain her and management her as we watch our empire fall.

He stated it’s not a tune, it’s a lifestyle. It’s a ceaselessly factor; it’s a message. He stated, you’ll be able to say that water is life. You can sing it time and again, however can you reside it?

Healing Through Connection to the Earth

Ocean Robbins: Thank you.

Lyla June: Thank you for letting me share.

Ocean Robbins: As you had been sharing, it actually moved me once you sang concerning the water that flows in our tears and flows from wombs. And I felt this actuality that we’re principally water.

And immediately, this phantasm that people are separate from the Earth simply sort of dissolved for me, and I felt the fact that we’re the Earth. We are a part of the Earth. And the Earth invitations us to return house to that figuring out so we will reclaim our fact, which is that we’re expressions of life on this planet — longing, I believe, to heal and get to be a part of that therapeutic.

Lyla June: I’m glad it may have that impact.

Ocean Robbins: Yes. Well, we’ve been speaking right here with Lyla June, indigenous activist, scientist, ecologist, advocate, singer, and songwriter. You can discover out extra about her at: 

She stated, it’s not concerning the ego, it’s not about concern. It’s definitely not, and we additionally wish to construct connections. So, if folks wish to contact her, please accomplish that. 

Lyla, it’s been an actual privilege to share this time with you, and I look ahead to extra sooner or later.

Lyla June: Yes. Thank you, Ocean. I respect it.

Tell us within the feedback:

  • Do you are feeling impressed by this interview?

  • Do you ever really feel disconnected? How do you restore your connection to others and the Earth?

  • Do you assume indigenous knowledge can add which means and worth to your life or to our world?

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